社会网络嵌入、双元均衡创新与国际创业研究

彭华涛,潘月怡等 科研管理

彭华涛1,2,潘月怡1,陈云1

1.武汉理工大学 管理学院,湖北 武汉430070;

2.武汉理工大学 创业学院,湖北 武汉430070

摘要双元均衡创新对于国际创业具有重要作用,且二者之间的关系受到社会网络的影响。本文基于组织双元、社会网络等理论,选取中国上市公司中的天生国际化企业2011—2020年的面板数据,探究双元均衡创新的平衡维度、互补维度对天生国际化企业国际创业绩效的影响,以及社会网络中心度与结构洞的调节效应。研究发现:双元均衡创新平衡维度和互补维度均对天生国际化企业国际创业绩效具有正向影响,社会网络中心度和结构洞均负向调节互补维度与国际创业绩效之间的关系,而对平衡维度与国际创业绩效之间的关系无调节作用。研究结论在一定程度上拓展了双元均衡创新的研究视角,并完善了社会网络、双元均衡创新以及国际创业的内在逻辑。

关键词双元均衡创新;国际创业;中心度;结构洞;天生国际化

主要研究结论:本文基于组织双元、社会网络等理论,以中国天生国际化企业为样本,以2011—2020年为观测期,基于社会网络嵌入视角探讨双元均衡创新与国际创业绩效之间的关系。研究发现:

第一,双元均衡创新的平衡维度和互补维度均对天生国际化企业国际创业绩效有正向的促进作用。双元均衡创新强调企业资源分配、应对变化的能力水平,天生国际化企业在国际市场中需要以双元的结合以弥补后发劣势,即一方面进行利用性创新快速积累初始资本,另一方面进行探索性创新获取核心优势。其中,平衡维度是相对于企业自身而言的,即在资源有限的情况下做出利于企业增长的分配方案,天生国际化企业只有明确自身定位和发展目标才能对平衡问题做出正确的认知。同时,企业在有能力的情况下亦可同时追求高探索性和高利用性。利用性创新为探索性创新的实施提供财务基础,探索性创新则是在企业进行知识和资源积累后进行的更高水平的创新,二者的互补性使企业在国际创业绩效的提升路径上有更多的选择。研究结论证实了双元均衡创新对于国际创业绩效的促进作用,亦说明对于探索性创新与利用性创新的紧密结合与合理选择更有利于国际创业企业的发展。

第二,社会网络中心度负向调节双元均衡创新互补维度与天生国际化企业国际创业绩效之间的正向关系。本文在董事兼任的基础之上构建社会网络,而基于“忙碌董事”假说,董事的多处任职将分散董事的精力。尤其是在企业进行高风险和高复杂性的国际创业的情况下,处于社会网络中心的董事对企业投入精力较少,不可避免地导致监管力度和决策准确度下降,从而造成企业内部治理环境不优,产生更高的试错成本和更低的创新转化效率,对企业的实际经营大打折扣。天生国际化企业只有在信息广泛、资源丰富的情况下才能选择出最有利于国际创业绩效提升的创新策略组合,社会网络带来一个封闭的网络,并且具有“排他性”,即企业为规避风险降低寻求外部合作者的意愿,偏向于已有的合作者,此类合作者大多来自国内,国外合作者的缺失不利于其掌握国际市场和提升国际创业绩效。天生国际化企业应根据实际情况合理发展其社会网络,该结论亦拓宽了社会网络中心度对于双元均衡创新和国际创业的新认识,可作为未来深入探索的研究方向。

第三,社会网络结构洞负向调节双元均衡创新互补维度与天生国际化企业国际创业绩效之间的正向关系。前面的研究表明,结构洞在企业创新实施方面有负面影响。一方面,企业对探索性和利用性的同时追求需要董事、高管等核心成员做出统一的、准确的决策,但结构洞带来的弱联系使企业在决策上耗费更多的时间与精力,且有决策失误的可能,反而不利于国际创业行为的实施。另一方面,企业的创新行为依赖于知识的获取、转移和利用,结构洞不利于复杂知识的扩散,从而导致企业在实现创新转化和国际创业绩效提升方面存在困难。该结论证实了结构洞的负面作用,亦说明紧密的网络关系更有利于国际创业。

第四,社会网络中心度和结构洞对于双元均衡创新平衡维度与天生国际化企业国际创业绩效之间的正向关系无调节作用。此原因可能是大多数天生国际化企业已经意识到探索性和利用性创新的平衡问题并在创业初期就有所行动。随着企业不断发展,所获取的信息和资源已足以实现平衡、降低国际化行为时的风险并提升国际创业绩效。社会网络本身是一种提供资源或是接近资源的手段,其发挥的积极作用可能与网络构建和维持的成本相抵消而无显着的作用。在国际创业的情境下,相比于社会网络,顾客偏好、市场环境以及国际政策在平衡维度促进国际创业绩效的关系上的影响可能更大。因此,未来可从市场环境、政策等视角探索国际创业企业双元创新的平衡问题。


Research on the relationship among social network embedding, ambidextrous equilibrium innovation and international entrepreneurship

Peng Huatao1,2, Pan Yueyi1, Chen Yun1

(1. School of Management, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China;

2. School of Entrepreneurship, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China)

Abstract:The importance of international opportunities has become increasingly prominent due to the development of globalization. Born globals, as a special kind of international start-up enterprises, born with an international vision and enter the international market at the beginning of establishment. It has always been the focus of research in the academic that how born globals overcome the characteristics of small scale and lack of resources, and occupy a core position in the complex and changeable international competitive environment. 

Ambidextrous innovation is an effective means for enterprises to gain competitive advantage, and more and more born globals have gradually realized that whether they can achieve equilibrium between exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation will directly affect their international entrepreneurial performance. On the one hand, they are opposite because they seize the limited resources, so enterprises need to strike a balance between the two. On the other hand, they can promote, complement and benefit each other to overcome the drawbacks of a single innovation model, and enterprises can pursue both high exploration and high exploitation. It′s necessary to explore that whether the equilibrium between the two can promote the international entrepreneurial performance of born globals. 

Connections between enterprises can affect innovation and entrepreneurship of enterprises. Social network, as a significant social capital, is a way for enterprises to obtain resources, which is conducive to the realization of innovation and the improvement of entrepreneurial performance. Born globals locate in domestic and foreign markets, with abundant opportunities and extensive information channels. In addition, the results of social networks are reflected in many aspects, not only in the transformation of innovation, so it′s worth exploring that whether social network has the same role for born globals, as well as how it plays an impact between ambidextrous innovation and international entrepreneurial performance. Therefore, based on the theories of organizational ambidexterity and social network, this paper uses Stata 16.0 software to analyze the panel data of born globals in China from 2011 to 2020. 

The first purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the balanced dimension and complementary dimension of ambidextrous innovation on their international entrepreneurial performance. And the second purpose is to explore the moderating effect of social network centrality and structural holes, so we construct social network based on the concurrent relationship between directors of enterprises, Ucinet6 software is used to calculate the centrality and structural holes. 

The results of study in this paper are as follows: The balance dimension and complementary dimension of ambidextrous innovation both have positive effects on the international entrepreneurial performance of born globals. The centrality, as well as structural holes both have negative moderating effects on the relationship between the complementary dimension of ambidextrous innovation and the international entrepreneurial performance, but have no moderating effects on the balanced dimension. 

The theoretical contributions of this paper include the following two aspects. Firstly, it further confirms the relationship between ambidextrous innovation and the international entrepreneurial performance of born globals. We incorporate the balanced dimension and complementary dimension into the study, enrich the research field of ambidextrous innovation and international entrepreneurship, and provide new research ideas for the influencing factors of the international entrepreneurial performance of born globals. Secondly, it further reveals the influence mechanism of social network between the ambidextrous innovation of born globals as well as the output of international entrepreneurship, and illustrates the negative moderating effect of centrality and structural holes. 

Key words:ambidextrous equilibrium innovation; international entrepreneurship; centrality; structural hole; born global

引用本文:彭华涛,潘月怡,陈云.社会网络嵌入、双元均衡创新与国际创业研究[J].科研管理,2022,43(11):45-54.

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