Rutherford的导论的第一部分“Writing Don Quixote”，因为太长，我强行分成了两半来精读，上半部分讲了下面几点：
So Sancho and the gang of narrators have now been incorporated, and Cervantes writes on, fast, not stopping to check or correct internal inconsistencies. After several more chapters it occurs to him that it would add to the amusement to have Sancho’s speech characterized by accumulations of proverbs, and from now on this is how Sancho, famously, speaks. This idea could well have been suggested by Fernando de Rojas’s Comedia o Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea (1499 and 1502), often known as La Celestina, a dramatic fictional narrative laced with proverbs, most of which are reused in Don Quixote.
It wouldn’t have been difficult to revise earlier chapters and put some proverbs into Sancho’s mouth there, too, for the sake of consistency, but Cervantes won’t stop for this triviality. He’s writing an ephemeral comic novel for popular consumption, not some erudite classic work for future generations of learned critics to pore over and analyse. Yet he’s also beginning to realize the full importance of this find he’s making, and has one of his characters congratulate him: ‘I can’t believe that if anyone wanted to invent such a story he’d be clever enough to do it,’ Cardenio says in chapter XXX.
因为他觉得自己就是在写一本转瞬即逝（ephemeral）的喜剧小说（comic novel），供大众消遣；又不是什么博学巨制（erudite classic work），让将来多少代富有学识的批评家们仔细研究（pore over）和分析到每一个毛孔里去。
But Cervantes has his doubts about his ability to turn such a simple subject as the relationship between two eccentric and nomadic friends into a successful full-length novel, and he includes some interpolated tales, which have tenuous connections with the main story, do not share its comic tone and can be skipped by the reader who finds them tedious, even though they have interesting qualities of their own.
And once Cervantes has written his two hundred thousand words or so, he takes Don Quixote back home and brings his story to an end. This ending both closes the novel, by referring to the knight’s death, and leaves it open for a possible sequel, by mentioning later adventures, in particular his participation in certain jousts in Saragossa, and by including a quotation from Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso to suggest that someone else might like to continue the story, as often happened with the romances of chivalry.
El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha was published in Madrid, in a hurried, shoddy edition, between late December 1604 and early January 1605.
The book was an immediate popular success. Cervantes, born in 1547, was by now an old man, and yet, stimulated by the extraordinary flourishing of literature in early seventeenth-century Spain, he was at the height of his creative productivity. The encouragement given by Don Quixote’s popularity being irresistible, he takes up the threads of the open version of the ending and resolves to have his knight ride to Saragossa, as promised. Cervantes decides, in response to criticism, that any interpolated tales in this second part will be shorter ones, and more integrated with the main story by developing from the experiences of the two heroes.
Cervantes’s imagination soon fastens on to a new circumstance, full of possibilities for enriching his novel still further: the publication and popularity of Part I. So Don Quixote now finds that he is the hero he had so improbably aspired to be, and Sancho also rejoices in unexpected fame. Neither knows the sad truth about the manner of their depiction, and so their self-assurance and self-importance grow, as does their complexity.
Don Quixote attracts our sympathy and pity as well as our mockery, as he’s made the butt of a series of elaborate practical jokes: our laughter at his expense is now more uneasy. Sancho Panza’s growth from a bumpkin into a man of resourcefulness is accelerated, as he gains the confidence to deceive and manipulate his master, something he’d already begun to do in Part I: relationships between superiors and inferiors turn out to be more complicated than they might seem to be.
And now Cervantes thinks of a way in which Sancho can astonishingly yet credibly become the governor of the island he’s been promised ever since he made his first appearance; and Sancho amazes us yet again with the rare combination of wisdom and stupidity that he shows both in government and in departure from government.
In autumn 1614, as the weary Cervantes at long last approaches the end of Part II, as he writes chapter LIX, comes a bolt from the blue: the publication in Tarragona of The Second Volume of the Ingenious Knight Don Quixote de la Mancha, by Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, the pseudonym of an unidentified writer who has accepted the tongue-in-cheek invitation at the end of Part I and has produced an inferior imitation which narrates the journey to Saragossa and the events that take place there.
1614年秋，塞万提斯已经67岁了，风烛残年，垂垂老矣，他的续集也即将完成，已经写到了第59章。突然来了一个晴天霹雳（a blot from the blue）。有个人把原作上半部结尾虚情假意（tongue-in-cheek）的续集写作邀请当了真，以Avellaneda地方的阿隆索的笔名（此人身份已不可考）真个出版了《来自拉曼却地方的聪明乡绅堂吉诃德第二部》。
Cervantes’s anger is expressed in his prologue to Part II (which was the last section he wrote, of course). But he’s too much of an artist to allow his anger to blind him to the comic possibilities opened up by this unexpected appearance of another Don Quixote and another Sancho Panza; so he writes them into his own story. And Don Quixote, still on his way to Saragossa, decides on the spur of the moment to change all his plans and ride to Barcelona instead, to demonstrate the spuriousness of Avellaneda’s account.
塞万提斯当然很愤怒，表现在他自己后来出版的第二部的序言（显然是最后写成的）里面。但是塞万提斯不愧是个真正的艺术家，他并没有让他的 愤怒去蒙蔽因为这种不期而遇的另一本《堂吉诃德》续集反而得以扩展的喜剧可能性（comic possibilities），他反而把这另一个（好像平行世界里的）堂吉诃德/桑丘写进了自己的书里去。
All this provides Cervantes with the momentum to carry him through to the end of his story, which for some time now has been foreshadowed in the growth in both characters’ minds of doubts and disillusionment. Cervantes is careful to end Part II with a definitive and unambiguous closure. His own life has not many more months to run.
所有这些给塞万提斯提供了某种动能，让他得以完成他的着作。随着两个角色怀疑精神（minds of doubts）和理想幻灭/醒悟（disillusionment）的增长，这本书的完成前景似乎本来已经蒙上了一些阴影（foreshadow）。
In this reconstruction of the writing of Don Quixote I’ve stressed its character as a funny book, because all the evidence indicates that this is what its author intended it to be. Some of the fun can be difficult for modern readers to appreciate, though, because it seems so cruel to us.
In confronting this problem it will help to remember that until comparatively recent times laughter was the normal self-defensive reaction to the disconcerting discovery of gross deviations from the beauty and harmony of God’s nature. Laughter distances us from that which is ugly and therefore potentially distressing, and indeed enables us to obtain paradoxical pleasure and therapeutic benefit from it.
笑声能让我们和丑陋的 - 因而很可能是让人沮丧的 - 东西疏离（distance），从而能让我们获得一种似是而非的欢乐（paradoxical pleasure）以及治疗收益（therapeutic benefit）。
Over the last couple of hundred years the area of distressing experience with which it’s possible to cope by enlisting laughter has shrunk, and nowadays it’s the fashion to prefer humourless and politically correct euphemism, which could well prove even less effective; but in Cervantes’s time madness and violence were among the many manifestations of ugliness that could be managed with laughter.
And yet works of fictional literature often develop, both in the writing and later, qualities other than those intended by their authors; and in Don Quixote we can also find much that provokes serious thought.
We laugh at the antics of Don Quixote and Sancho; but when we discover that we’re laughing in the company of the vacuous Duke and Duchess, we might well feel uncomfortable about our laughter; if so, the novel has become not just a funny book about madmen but also an exploration of the ethics of fun and of the hazy dividing-line between madness and sanity.
It’s clear, to take another example, that Cervantes made fiction itself a central theme of this work of fiction because of the comic possibilities with which this provided him. But there’s nothing to prevent readers from moving on to a consideration of serious implications about the relationships between fact and fiction, and about the parallels between Don Quixote’s response to romances of chivalry and current responses to televised soap operas or to televised violence. All this might even lead to a realization that self-conscious and self-referential fiction is not, as certain contemporary critics and theoreticians seem in their postmodernist parochiality to believe, a twentieth-century discovery.
With all its fun and all its seriousness and all its surprises, Don Quixote offers its readers a glorious journey of discovery in the excellent company of Sancho Panza, Don Quixote de la Mancha and Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Buen viaje a todos (Have a nice trip)!