“企鹅经典”英译本Rutherford导论之一 - 《堂吉诃德》的写作(下半部分)

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Rutherford的导论的第一部分“Writing Don Quixote”,因为太长,我强行分成了两半来精读,上半部分讲了下面几点:

  1. 塞万提斯最初创作《堂吉诃德》的时候并没有想到写个长篇,他是按照短篇故事来构思的,但写着写着就刹不住车了。所以小说结构上并不谨严

  2. 《堂吉诃德》本来是对16世纪前70年流行的骑士浪漫文学的一个滑稽化模拟,以嘲讽骑士文学里面宣扬的那些不切实际的东西。但是这种嘲讽如此的滑稽搞笑,却更让大家记住了骑士文学。塞万提斯装模作样的给自己作品加上很多道德说教,但是却更好的嘲讽了道德说教

  3. 桑丘是很重要的角色。吉诃德和桑丘两人的长篇对话让角色发展,让小说也变得深刻

  4. 多个讲述人也是很重要的小说组成,也是非常现代的写作手法。


上面可以看出主要是讲塞万提斯写作的缘起,写作的灵感来源和模仿对象,在从短篇小说向长篇巨制发展的自发过程中引入了两个重要的工具:侍从桑丘和男主吉诃德老爷插科打诨,多个记述者的观察视角。下面应该就是讲全书具体的发展以及如何结束成篇了。




So Sancho and the gang of narrators have now been incorporated, and Cervantes writes on, fast, not stopping to check or correct internal inconsistencies. After several more chapters it occurs to him that it would add to the amusement to have Sancho’s speech characterized by accumulations of proverbs, and from now on this is how Sancho, famously, speaks. This idea could well have been suggested by Fernando de Rojas’s Comedia o Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea (1499 and 1502), often known as La Celestina, a dramatic fictional narrative laced with proverbs, most of which are reused in Don Quixote. 


  • 再次提到侍从桑丘多个记述者这两个重要写作工具。

  • 进一步增加娱乐性,把proverb(格言,箴言)的堆积作为桑丘的说话风格。这个也不是塞万提斯的原创,来自于1500年左右的一本书叫La Celestina,而且这本书里面很多的箴言塞万提斯直接就复制粘贴了。


It wouldn’t have been difficult to revise earlier chapters and put some proverbs into Sancho’s mouth there, too, for the sake of consistency, but Cervantes won’t stop for this triviality. He’s writing an ephemeral comic novel for popular consumption, not some erudite classic work for future generations of learned critics to pore over and analyse. Yet he’s also beginning to realize the full importance of this find he’s making, and has one of his characters congratulate him: ‘I can’t believe that if anyone wanted to invent such a story he’d be clever enough to do it,’ Cardenio says in chapter XXX. 


  • 塞万提斯在改变桑丘的说法风格后,本可以回过去修改前面几章以加入一些箴言以让风格统一。但是塞万提斯根本没费心思去注意这些小事

  • 因为他觉得自己就是在写一本转瞬即逝(ephemeral)的喜剧小说(comic novel)供大众消遣;又不是什么博学巨制(erudite classic work),让将来多少代富有学识的批评家们仔细研究(pore over)和分析到每一个毛孔里去。

  • 但是塞万提斯对自己作品的认识也在微妙的转变,他逐渐认识到了自己作品的分量。在第30章,他借小说中某个人物的话语来恭维自己:“我不相信能有人能发明如此了不起的故事,他能有如此聪明能做到这件事情”




But Cervantes has his doubts about his ability to turn such a simple subject as the relationship between two eccentric and nomadic friends into a successful full-length novel, and he includes some interpolated tales, which have tenuous connections with the main story, do not share its comic tone and can be skipped by the reader who finds them tedious, even though they have interesting qualities of their own. 


  • 本段说塞万提斯对自己的能力不是很自信,害怕无法把两个怪人(吉诃德和桑丘)之间关系和互动这么个简单的主题衍生成一本成功的长篇小说,所以他插入(interpolate)了一系列的短篇小故事tales),这些小故事和主线情节的关系很弱(tenuous),喜剧气氛也不一致,如果读者觉得这些东西冗长乏味(tedious),完全可以略过。


And once Cervantes has written his two hundred thousand words or so, he takes Don Quixote back home and brings his story to an end. This ending both closes the novel, by referring to the knight’s death, and leaves it open for a possible sequel, by mentioning later adventures, in particular his participation in certain jousts in Saragossa, and by including a quotation from Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso to suggest that someone else might like to continue the story, as often happened with the romances of chivalry.


  • 在写了大概20万字后,塞万提斯决定结束小说(也就是《堂吉诃德》的上半部),让吉诃德老爷回家了。他也提到了骑士的死亡,但是他也留下了续集的机会,因为他提到吉诃德后来参加了Saragossa地区的骑士比武大会(joust)。

  • 而且他还暗示可能其他人会想要续写吉诃德的故事,就像以前的骑士浪漫小说经常续集由其他作家完成一样。




El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha was published in Madrid, in a hurried, shoddy edition, between late December 1604 and early January 1605. 


  • 《来自拉曼却地方的聪明乡绅堂吉诃德》一书于1604年12月末至1605年1月初在马德里匆匆付印,初版的印制质量很糟糕(shoddy)。




The book was an immediate popular success. Cervantes, born in 1547, was by now an old man, and yet, stimulated by the extraordinary flourishing of literature in early seventeenth-century Spain, he was at the height of his creative productivity. The encouragement given by Don Quixote’s popularity being irresistible, he takes up the threads of the open version of the ending and resolves to have his knight ride to Saragossa, as promised. Cervantes decides, in response to criticism, that any interpolated tales in this second part will be shorter ones, and more integrated with the main story by developing from the experiences of the two heroes. 


  • 小说极其成功,极受大众欢迎。塞万提斯到这个时候按中世纪标准来看已是位衰朽老人(58岁)了。但是他被17世纪初西班牙文学极度繁荣的时代背景所激励,创造力也爆棚。加上受了自己作品大流行的鼓舞,他开始着手写续集,让吉诃德骑士向Saragossa进发,去参加长枪比赛。

  • 为了响应读者的批评,他决定减少上半部里频繁出现的穿插小故事,而且尽量和主线故事结合得更紧密一些。




Cervantes’s imagination soon fastens on to a new circumstance, full of possibilities for enriching his novel still further: the publication and popularity of Part I. So Don Quixote now finds that he is the hero he had so improbably aspired to be, and Sancho also rejoices in unexpected fame. Neither knows the sad truth about the manner of their depiction, and so their self-assurance and self-importance grow, as does their complexity


  • 随着小说上半部的出版和流行,塞万提斯的想象力又有了新的突破。他把吉诃德和桑丘对自己名气的认知也加到小说下半部里面去了。也就是说在下半部里面吉诃德和桑丘已经“知道”自己是位大英雄了是个在上半部里面努力想要去成为的,但是看起来毫无希望去成为的英雄。

  • 但两个人都不知道小说怎么描写他们的样子的。

  • 所以他们的自信和自大在发展,这两角色的复杂性也在增长


Don Quixote attracts our sympathy and pity as well as our mockery, as he’s made the butt of a series of elaborate practical jokes: our laughter at his expense is now more uneasy. Sancho Panza’s growth from a bumpkin into a man of resourcefulness is accelerated, as he gains the confidence to deceive and manipulate his master, something he’d already begun to do in Part I: relationships between superiors and inferiors turn out to be more complicated than they might seem to be. 


  • butt,(贬损,侮辱)的目标,不是臀部的意思我看某词典例句好像是莎士比亚首先这么用的。堂吉诃德会吸引我们的嘲弄,但也会获得我们的同情和怜悯。我们对他的嘲笑在逐渐变得并不是那么的心安理得(more uneasy)。

  • 桑丘加速从一个土包子(bumpkin)成长为一个智者,他现在有足够的自信去哄骗和操控他的主人骑士。当然上半部里他就已经开始这么干了。

  • 上级/强者(superior)和下级/弱者(inferior)之间的关系变得比表面看起来的更为复杂


And now Cervantes thinks of a way in which Sancho can astonishingly yet credibly become the governor of the island he’s been promised ever since he made his first appearance; and Sancho amazes us yet again with the rare combination of wisdom and stupidity that he shows both in government and in departure from government.


  • 桑丘现在也当上了海岛总督。在对海岛的治理和对治理的偏离中他都呈现了一种智慧和愚蠢的奇异结合体




In autumn 1614, as the weary Cervantes at long last approaches the end of Part II, as he writes chapter LIX, comes a bolt from the blue: the publication in Tarragona of The Second Volume of the Ingenious Knight Don Quixote de la Mancha, by Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, the pseudonym of an unidentified writer who has accepted the tongue-in-cheek invitation at the end of Part I and has produced an inferior imitation which narrates the journey to Saragossa and the events that take place there. 


  • 1614年秋,塞万提斯已经67岁了,风烛残年,垂垂老矣,他的续集也即将完成,已经写到了第59章。突然来了一个晴天霹雳(a blot from the blue)。有个人把原作上半部结尾虚情假意(tongue-in-cheek)的续集写作邀请当了真,以Avellaneda地方的阿隆索的笔名(此人身份已不可考)真个出版了《来自拉曼却地方的聪明乡绅堂吉诃德第二部

  • 这书是塞万提斯上半部风格的拙劣模仿,按照原书上半部结尾的暗示写了吉诃德到Saragossa的冒险以及在那里发生的事情


Cervantes’s anger is expressed in his prologue to Part II (which was the last section he wrote, of course). But he’s too much of an artist to allow his anger to blind him to the comic possibilities opened up by this unexpected appearance of another Don Quixote and another Sancho Panza; so he writes them into his own story. And Don Quixote, still on his way to Saragossa, decides on the spur of the moment to change all his plans and ride to Barcelona instead, to demonstrate the spuriousness of Avellaneda’s account. 


  • 塞万提斯当然很愤怒,表现在他自己后来出版的第二部的序言(显然是最后写成的)里面。但是塞万提斯不愧是个真正的艺术家,他并没有让他的 愤怒去蒙蔽因为这种不期而遇的另一本《堂吉诃德》续集反而得以扩展的喜剧可能性(comic possibilities),他反而把这另一个(好像平行世界里的)堂吉诃德/桑丘写进了自己的书里去

  • 堂吉诃德,本来在去Saragossa的路上,现在因为这起突发事情,决定改变计划,改而到巴塞罗那去了,这样自然表明了Avellaneda那位作者作品的伪造性。


All this provides Cervantes with the momentum to carry him through to the end of his story, which for some time now has been foreshadowed in the growth in both characters’ minds of doubts and disillusionment. Cervantes is careful to end Part II with a definitive and unambiguous closure. His own life has not many more months to run. 


  • 所有这些给塞万提斯提供了某种动能,让他得以完成他的着作。随着两个角色怀疑精神(minds of doubts)和理想幻灭/醒悟(disillusionment)的增长,这本书的完成前景似乎本来已经蒙上了一些阴影(foreshadow)。

  • 在小说下半部的结束,塞万提斯小心的,明确的,没有歧义的给全书划上了一个句号。他自己的生命离结束也只剩下几个月的时间了。




In this reconstruction of the writing of Don Quixote I’ve stressed its character as a funny book, because all the evidence indicates that this is what its author intended it to be. Some of the fun can be difficult for modern readers to appreciate, though, because it seems so cruel to us. 


  • 在对《堂吉诃德》一书写作过程的重构中,我一再强调这本书的定位是一本娱乐小说(funny book)。所有作者自己写作企图的证据都证明了这一点。

  • 但是很多娱乐效果对现代读者已经难以理解,甚至看起来有些残忍,不够人道。


In confronting this problem it will help to remember that until comparatively recent times laughter was the normal self-defensive reaction to the disconcerting discovery of gross deviations from the beauty and harmony of God’s natureLaughter distances us from that which is ugly and therefore potentially distressing, and indeed enables us to obtain paradoxical pleasure and therapeutic benefit from it. 


  • 要记住,一直到相当晚近的时期,“笑声”(laughter)仍然是人类惊慌失措(disconcerting)地发现现实和上帝造物的美丽与和谐有极大背离(gross deviations)时最常规(normal)的自我防卫反应

  • 笑声能让我们和丑陋的 - 因而很可能是让人沮丧的 - 东西疏离distance),从而能让我们获得一种似是而非的欢乐(paradoxical pleasure)以及治疗收益(therapeutic benefit)

  • 这段真是太赞了,拜服。


Over the last couple of hundred years the area of distressing experience with which it’s possible to cope by enlisting laughter has shrunk, and nowadays it’s the fashion to prefer humourless and politically correct euphemism, which could well prove even less effective; but in Cervantes’s time madness and violence were among the many manifestations of ugliness that could be managed with laughter. 


  • 过往几百年以来,能够以“笑声(一笑了之)”去应对的沮丧经验已经变得越来越少,现在的时髦是一本正经和政治正确的委婉语(euphemism),而这显然已经证明远不如笑声有用。

  • 但是在塞万提斯的时代,很多的丑恶包括疯狂和暴力都可以一笑了之。这个其实和我们现在很多人去政治正确的解读《水浒》《三国》等中国传统名着是一回事,这些人学了几个时髦的政治正确的名词,就开始一本正经的对古典名着进行解构和剖析了,好像这些疯狂和暴力在他自己身上并不存在,好像他自己并不可笑一样




And yet works of fictional literature often develop, both in the writing and later, qualities other than those intended by their authors; and in Don Quixote we can also find much that provokes serious thought


  • 但是虚构类文学作品的魅力就在于它会发展,在它的写作过程中,以及在写作完成后,会发展出一些作者并没有预期的品质。《堂吉诃德》就有许多这样的品质,并激发我们的严肃思索


We laugh at the antics of Don Quixote and Sancho; but when we discover that we’re laughing in the company of the vacuous Duke and Duchess, we might well feel uncomfortable about our laughter; if so, the novel has become not just a funny book about madmen but also an exploration of the ethics of fun and of the hazy dividing-line between madness and sanity


  • 我们嘲笑吉诃德和桑丘的滑稽(antic);但是当我们发现我们和空虚的公爵和公爵夫人一起嘲笑时,我们可能会对自己的嘲笑产生一些不安。

  • 如果是这样,那么这部小说就不再只是一本关于疯汉的滑稽小说,也成为了一种探索,既是对玩笑伦理学的探索,也是对疯狂和理智之间并不明晰的(hazy)分界线的探索


It’s clear, to take another example, that Cervantes made fiction itself a central theme of this work of fiction because of the comic possibilities with which this provided him. But there’s nothing to prevent readers from moving on to a consideration of serious implications about the relationships between fact and fiction, and about the parallels between Don Quixote’s response to romances of chivalry and current responses to televised soap operas or to televised violence. All this might even lead to a realization that self-conscious and self-referential fiction is not, as certain contemporary critics and theoreticians seem in their postmodernist parochiality to believe, a twentieth-century discovery. 


  • 再举个例子,塞万提斯通过引入多个记述者,不停的以旁观者来评述虚构记事,以虚构故事作为这个虚构故事作品的中心主题(连环套)的这种写作手法,他的本意也许不过是为了增加笑料。

  • 但是读者完全可以更进一步去思考一些严肃的内涵,比如

    • 事实和虚构的关系

    • 堂吉诃德对骑士浪漫文学的反应,和我们对当下的电视肥皂剧以及暴力影剧作品的反应的类比

  • 甚至可以让我们意识到,某些当代批评家和理论家们宣称的这种自觉的(self-conscious),自我指参的(self-referential)虚构文学作品早已存在,宣称它们只能是20世纪的发现不过是一种后现代的狭隘自大(parochiality)




With all its fun and all its seriousness and all its surprises, Don Quixote offers its readers a glorious journey of discovery in the excellent company of Sancho Panza, Don Quixote de la Mancha and Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Buen viaje a todos (Have a nice trip)!


  • 在桑丘*潘沙、拉曼却的堂吉诃德以及塞万提斯本人的有趣陪伴下,《堂吉诃德》一书用它所有的玩笑、严肃和惊奇,给读者供上一个辉煌奇妙的发现之旅。旅途愉快!




这篇长文继续提到:

  1. 桑丘语言风格的变化,引入箴言大排档

  2. 穿插的很多比较分散的小故事是来自于塞万提斯的不自信

  3. 上半部的结束、出版和大流行,上半部结尾对续集的含煳暗示招来了意想不到的剽窃作品。

  4. 下半部的写作,人物性格和形象的进一步深化

  5. 写作手法的深化,虚构作品对现实(上半部出版后的流行和名声,剽窃作品的提前出版)的引用并揉入新的虚构,什么是真实,什么是虚构?

  6. 《堂吉诃德》的娱乐性为什么在现在可能对某些人不再存在?一些简短而深刻的分析。

  7. 虚构文学作品的作者初始定位和作品本身对这种定位的突破和拓展《堂吉诃德》作品的意义,一些简短而深刻的分析。


有趣而深刻的文章(特别是后面几段),极大的丰富了我对虚构类文学作品的认识。当然虚构类文学作品在人类几千年的文字史中真是有如恒河之沙、汗牛充栋,真正值得我们去探索拓展它的意义的作品并不太多(很幸运这样),而《堂吉诃德》显然是值得的那一部。

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